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The film is then dehydrated and, if the precursors are metal-oxides, reduced in a H2/N2 atmosphere. Please write to info [at] iw-cigstech [dot] org. The accommodation page will help you with that. Na's beneficial effects include increases in p-type conductivity, texture, and average grain size. Explore. cigs Solar Frontier achieves CIS thin-film lab efficiency record of 23.35%. However, the quaternary CIGS absorber has to be controlled tightly to reproduce the high efficiencies created in labs on a production scale. A (204) surface orientation is observed in the best quality devices. For efficiencies higher than 7%, a stoichiometry correction are required. In 2013, scientists at the Swiss Federal Laboratories for Materials Science and Technology developed CIGS cells on flexible polymer foils with a new record efficiency of 20.4%. by Eric Wesoff . Boeing's coevaporation process deposits bilayers of CIGS with different stoichiometries onto a heated substrate and allows them to intermix. CIS or CIGS refers to the components copper (Cu), indium (In), gallium (Ga) and selenium (Se). To reach the ideal bandgap for a single junction solar cell, 1.5 eV, a Ga/(In+Ga) ratio of roughly 0.7 is optimal. A direct bandgap material, CIGS has very strong light absorption and a layer of only 1–2 micrometers (µm) is enough to absorb most of the sunlight. Furthermore, and due to the inherent advantages of thin film solar production, CIGS has substantial cost advantages and a . Ascent Solar develops and manufactures its cutting-edge CIGS (Copper-Indium-Gallium-Selenide) photovoltaic technology on a flexible, plastic substrate. Although CIGS solar cells are considered to be in the early stages of large-scale commercialization, they can be produced by Ideal Na concentration is considered to be approximately 0.1%. When CIGS films are In rich (Cu deficient) the film's surface layer forms an ordered defect compound (ODC) with a stoichiometry of Cu(In,Ga)3Se5. • CIGS accounts for only ~2-4% of PV market shipments o Vast majority of modules sold to the Japanese market • Several CIGS start-ups have been acquired by Hanergy or have closed • A lack of public CIGS companies means there is The technique involves the electric field assisted spraying of ink containing CIS nano-particles onto the substrate directly and then sintering in an inert environment. At approximately 33%, the theoretical efficiency limits for crystalline silicon (c-Si), cadmium telluride (CdTe) and copper indium gallium selenide (CIGS) photovoltaic materials are roughly identical — and given the extensive history of c-Si research and manufacturing, it comes at no surprise that silicon’s record device efficiency of 26.7% has narrowed the gap between theory and … Electrodeposition of elemental layers is similar to the sputtering of elemental layers. In recent years, BIPV (Building Integrated PV) has attracted attention in the green energy market, and ultra-light flexible CIGS solar products, the next generation solar cell, are being illuminated as the most suitable technology. CIS is the most efficient thin-film Technology, in terms of energy yield (kWh/kWp), our modules have some of the highest yields of any photovoltaic system. Recombination in CIGS has been suggested to be dominated by non-radiative processes. Miasole had procured venture capital funds for its process and scale up. 1961 - "Solar Energy in the Developing World" conference is held by the United Nations. Bandgap grading 3. The energy demands are increasing while the fossil fuel resources which dominate most general energy systems are limited and forecast to become less and more expensive in future [1]. The most common vacuum-based process is to co-evaporate or co-sputter copper, gallium, and indium onto a substrate at room temperature, then anneal the resulting film with a selenide vapor. Solar to become a significant source of fuel savings Fully Burdened Cost Of Fuel Even with optimization, reproducibility is low over large areas due to composition variations and potential drops along the substrate. 1. Nanosolar and International Solar Electric Technology (ISET) unsuccessfully attempted to scale up this process. Silicon is in front due to massive Chinese investment, with single-crystal silicon likely to usurp polycrystalline silicon. IW-CIGSTech 8 has been a great success, presenting hot CIGS thin-film solar cell research and industry news to a packed auditorium in Stuttgart, Germany: IW-CIGSTech 8 participants in front of the CIGS facade at new ZSW building in Stuttgart, Continue reading Save the date: IW-CIGSTech 9 to be held on June 18, 2018, at ZSW in Stuttgart, Germany, Save the date: IW-CIGSTech 9 to be held on June 18, 2018, at ZSW in Stuttgart, Germany, White Paper for CIGS Thin-Film Solar Cell Technology, CIGS paper published in renowned Nature Communications journal. Because the material has a high absorption coefficient and strongly absorbs sunlight, a much thinner film is required than of other semiconductor materials. It will take place at Helmholtz Zentrum Berlin (HZB) in Berlin Adlershof on 22nd and 23rd June 2020. This is followed by Cu sputtering and selenization. CIGS and CdTe-PV remain the only two commercially successful thin-film technologies in a globally fast-growing PV market. CIGS Solar Update: Avancis Sets Thin-Film PV Module Efficiency Record. The highest theoretical efficiency of double junction solar cells is predicted for architectures with the bottom cell bandgap (E g) of approximately 0.9–1.0 eV, which is lower than that of a typical Si cell (1.1 eV).Cu(In,Ga)(Se,S) 2 (CIGS) solar cells exhibit a tunable E g depending on their elemental composition and depth profile. The future could well belong to this promising technology. A metal foil substrate is used as the working electrode in industrial processes. CIGS-3000 Thin Film Solar Panels. The 4-terminal tandem consists of a perovskite solar cell stacked on top of a CIGS cell, based on a fully scalable device concept to enable industrial adoption of the process. [4] Many CIGS solar panel manufacturer companies have gone bankrupt. The CIGS technology is very promising for entering into this PV glass field since it can deliver high efficiency solar cells (22.6% record) or modules and already exists in the market for power applications. However, H2Se is highly toxic and is classified as an environmental hazard. In the highly competitive PV industry, pressure increased on CIGS manufacturers, leading to the bankruptcy of several companies, as prices for conventional silicon cells declined rapidly in recent years. Little research and development supported this technique. In 2008, CIGS efficiency was by far the highest compared with those achieved by other thin film technologies such as cadmium telluride photovoltaics (CdTe) or amorphous silicon (a-Si). This efficiency record, confirmed by TÜV Rheinland on a module surface area of 120 x 60 centimeters, was achieved on production equipment of Manz at the R&D site of NICE Solar Energy in Schwäbisch Hall. CIGS is a compound semiconductor made by a combination of four elements namely Copper, Indium, Gallium and Selenium. CIGS Solar Update: Avancis Sets Thin-Film PV Module Efficiency Record 5 In September 2013, Saint-Gobain subsidiary Avancis curtailed production at its German CIGS thin-film solar factory. More detailed information will be published at usual on the event website iw-cigstech.org. Product benefits. The result tops the 24.6% efficiency the consortium announced in September 2018. When compared to laminar metal precursor layers, sintered nanoparticles selenize more rapidly. [5], CIGS is a I-III-VI2 compound semiconductor material composed of copper, indium, gallium, and selenium. While First Solar has gambled away eight valuable years the company not only has a treasure trove of data from its earlier program, but has acquired key IP assets from a recently defunct Silicon Valley CIGS company and can leverage an … Weighing in at a mere 0.7 lb / sqft, comprised of the most advanced PV laminate materials available and with a 25-year power warranty, they stand alone in a crowded field of heavy and brittle competitors. [17] CIS and CGS solar cells offer total area efficiencies of 15.0% and 9.5%,[28] respectively. However, as all of these technologies normally use high-temperature deposition techniques, the best performance normally comes from cells deposited on glass, even though advances in low-temperature deposition of CIGS cells have erased much of this performance difference. Keywords Grid-connected, CIGS, Solar PV, performance , PVsyst, solar cell. The increased rate is a result of the greater surface area associated with porosity. Starting from the results regarding a nonvacuum technique to fabricate CIGS thin films for solar cells by means of single-step electrodeposition, we focus on the methodological problems of modeling at cell structure and photovoltaic module levels. arrow_drop_up arrow_drop_down. "Solar cell efficiency tables (version 50)." In principle, the precursors can be deposited at low temperature using low-cost deposition techniques, lowering module cost. Researchers engaged in the Capitano project are combining thin-film solar modules based on perovskite semiconductors with semiconductors made of copper, indium, gallium and selenium (CIGS). Reporting from SPI in Anaheim: thin-film PV giant to lower costs and gain efficiency with improvements at new factory. [30] Additionally, the reaction rates of Cu/Ga and Cu/In layers with Se are different. The complete text of the White Paper can also be read online on this website – simply select “Why invest in CIGS thin-film technology?” in the menu. In 2013, the market share of CIGS alone was about 2 percent and all thin-film technologies combined fell below 10 percent. CVD deposition temperatures are lower than those used for other processes such as co-evaporation and selenization of metallic precursors. 1964 - The satellite Nimbus I is equipped with Sun-tracking solar … By comparison, a much greater thickness of about 160–190 µm is required for crystalline silicon. [3] Prominent manufacturers of CIGS photovoltaics were the now-bankrupt companies Nanosolar and Solyndra. Developments in research and manufacturing have pushed copper gallium indium selenide (CIGS) solar panel to the forefront in the adoption of photovoltaic technology for energy generation. The CIGS absorber is deposited on a stainless steel substrate, along with electrodes on the front to collect current. ... Unser Angebot für Fachbetriebe der Gewerke PV, Solar, Dach, Energie, Heizung, Fenster: Werden Sie Partner! A leaflet with all relevation information can be downloaded as PDF. The Se source affects the resulting film properties. Current market leader is the Japanese company Solar Frontier, with Global Solar and GSHK Solar also producing solar modules free of any heavy metals such as cadmium and/or lead. Showa Shell reported a maximum module efficiency of 13.6% with an average of 11.3% for 3600 cm2 substrates. CIGS is a highly stable, high performance, and mature thin film PV technology. [16] A team at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory achieved 19.9%, a record at the time,[17] by modifying the CIGS surface and making it look like CIS. Modules sold by Shell Solar claim 9.4% module efficiency. German-Chines joint venture NICE Solar Energy GmbH has achieved a new world record efficiency for CIGS thin-film solar modules with 17.6 percent. [34] Showa Shell sputtered a Cu-Ga alloy layer and an In layer, followed by selenization in H2Se and sulfurization in H2S. Additionally, film surfaces are generally quite rough which serves to further decrease the VOC. The new edition of the CIGS White Paper has been published today. PV Tech recently highlighted plans announced by First Solar to expand manufacturing capacity of its large-area Series 6 modules. That 0.5cm² device consisted of a perovskite cell combined with a CIGS device developed by Germany’s Center for Solar Energy and Hydrogen Research (ZSW), which is also a Percistand partner. Registration will open soon, so you might as well make your travel arrangements already. ISET's sample suffered most from low VOC and low fill factor, indicative of a rough surface and/or a high number of defects aiding recombination. A non-vacuum-based alternative process deposits nanoparticles of the precursor materials on the substrate and then sinters them in situ. The claimed conversion efficiency improves on the 24.6% the researchers announced in September 2018 for a perovskite-based tandem CIGS solar cell, the imec press office told pv magazine. World record for flexible thin film modules Ultra efficient Solar Power. During this step, called chalcogenization, complex interactions occur to form a chalcogenide. Alkali incorporation 4. Solar Photovoltaic Guidelines 5 PV Covered Bike Lane3 BIPV Roof Shingles7 BIPV Window Application 8 Wearable PV 4 PV Integrated into Public Art6 Free Standing PV Array 5 Solar PV technology can be applied in numerous ways and at varying scales, from that of a handheld device to utility sized PV farms. The buffer is overlaid with a thin, intrinsic zinc oxide layer (i-ZnO) which is capped by a thicker, aluminum (Al) doped ZnO layer. Published in the renowned science journal Nature Communications in August 2020, the results of this investigation reveal how manufacturers of CIGS thin-film solar cells can achieve even higher efficiencies. Here, the light is absorbed and, through the photovoltaic effect, an electron-hole pair is created. Based on Hall measurements, these films have a low carrier concentration and relatively high mobility. Sandwiched between conductive layers and deposited on substrates such as glass, plastic, steel, and aluminum, CIGS layers are thin enough to be allowed full-panel flexibility. Nanosolar reported a cell (not module) efficiency of 14%, however this was not verified by any national laboratory testing, nor did they allow onsite inspections. Soda-lime glass of about of 1–3 milflimetres thickness is commonly used as a substrate, because the glass sheets contains sodium, which has been shown to yield a substantial open-circuit voltage increase,[11] notably through surface and grain boundary defects passivation. Simultaneous electrodeposition must overcome the fact that the elements' standard reduction potentials are not equal, causing preferential deposition of a single element. This is evidence of a poor CIGS/CdS interface, possibly due to the lack of an ODC surface layer on the Global Solar film. Additionally, coevaporation is plagued by low material utilization (deposition on chamber walls instead of the substrate, especially for selenium) and expensive vacuum equipment. flexible, thin-film cigs Ascent Solar develops and manufactures its cutting-edge CIGS (Copper-Indium-Gallium-Selenide) photovoltaic technology on a flexible, plastic substrate. Processes include atmosphere pressure metal organic CVD (AP-MOCVD), plasma-enhanced CVD (PECVD), low-pressure MOCVD (LP-MOCVD), and aerosol assisted MOCVD (AA-MOCVD). Annealing is required to improve crystallinity. The objective is to collect that electron before it runs into something and is re-absorbed (called recombination). More in Tags. These films performed quite favorably in relation to other manufacturers and to absorbers grown at NREL and the Institute for Energy Conversion (IEC). Solar farm inspections. This industrial grade module is an industry standart among various industry professions. By comparison, elemental Se only achieves full incorporation with reaction temperatures above 500 °C. The hallmark of CIS technology is its wafer-thin 2µm semiconductor layer. The i-ZnO layer is used to protect the CdS and the absorber layer from sputtering damage while depositing the ZnO:Al window layer, since the latter is usually deposited by DC sputtering, known as a damaging process. Flexibility in photovoltaics often means heavy and slightly bendable, but CIGS technologies are flexible enough to be rolled up. These cells also have a higher power efficiency ranging from approximately 10% and 12%. The resulting films have small grains, are Cu-rich, and generally contain Cu2−xSex phases along with impurities from the solution. [14] The Al doped ZnO serves as a transparent conducting oxide to collect and move electrons out of the cell while absorbing as little light as possible. Theoretically, recombination can be controlled by engineering the film, and is extrinsic to the material.[32]. CTI Holdings was established in 2019 for green energy related fields and various convergence technology and application businesses. [18] In September 2012 the German Manz AG presented a CIGS solar module with an efficiency of 14.6% on total module surface and 15.9% on aperture, which was produced on a mass production facility. → Weitere Informationen. [13] A molybdenum (Mo) metal layer is deposited (commonly by sputtering) which serves as the back contact and reflects most unabsorbed light back into the CIGS absorber. The production costs of CIGS solar modules are highly competitive with other PV technologies on a capex basis. Visit coordinator ZSW this week at EU-PVSEC in Marseille, booth A1. This is why the use of CIGS, a long lifespan and high efficiency technology, is a very adequate solution for semi-transparent PV glazing and is the object of our study. 02.14.14 Manufacturing 6. These cigs solar panel are available in multiple varieties and comprised of high polymers. CIGS is mainly used in the form of polycrystalline thin films. In and Ga are first evaporated followed by Cu and then by In and Ga to make the film Cu deficient. Following molybdenum deposition a p-type CIGS absorber layer is grown by one of several unique methods. Solar Frontier of Japan now has 1 percent of global PV output and CIGS overall has passed 2 percent by "redefining the battleground", according to IDTechEx, which describes CIGS as the "rock star of photovoltaics". Device modeling and characterization 6. CdTe and CIGS solar cells are a potential alternative for silicon (Si) solar cells, with costs are considered cheaper than for silicon solar cells. This requires the precursor concentrations and deposition potential to be optimized. [18][23] Gallium's relative abundance, compared to indium, lowers costs. A team staffed with researchers from the Centre for Solar Energy and Hydrogen Research Baden-Württemberg (ZSW), Martin Luther University Halle-Wittenberg (MLU) and the Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin (HZB) recently identified a key point where the performance of thin-film solar cells can be improved for the cell to convert more sunlight into electricity. However, as completed cells the NREL sample performed better. Higher efficiencies (around 30%) can be obtained by using optics to concentrate the incident light. Sunflare uses an extremely thin light-absorbing CIGS layer with less than 1mm of elemental materials in its production process. 140W Flexible CIGS Solar Module Thin-film PV, in particular CIGS, is a key technology to be one of the future technologies of photovoltaics and has great potential for further technological developments. CIS is the most efficient thin-film Technology, in terms of energy yield (kWh/kWp), our modules have some of the highest yields of any photovoltaic system. [13] ISET uses oxide particles, while Nanosolar did not discuss its ink. The next generation flexible thin-film PV modules to enter the marketplace were built using copper-indium-gallium-selenide (CIGS) thin-film PV technology. The recombination velocity at the CIGS/CdS interface is decreased by the homojunction's presence. 1963 - Sharp Corporation produces a viable photovoltaic module of silicon solar cells. Oxygen passivates Se vacancies that act as compensating donors and recombination centers. [30], The highest efficiency devices show substantial texturing, or preferred crystallographic orientation. Potential manufacturing problems include difficulties converting CVD to an inline process as well as the expense of handling volatile precursors. The buffer is typically cadmium sulfide (CdS) deposited via chemical bath deposition. Green, Martin A., et al. PV Thin Film Solar -- CIGS Transfer Module - Duration: 0:25. This uses less energy than smelting large amounts of quartz sand in electric furnaces and growing large crystals, necessary for conventional silicon cells, and thus reduces its energy payback time significantly. We have expertise in: 1. Global Solar Energy's factory is located in Tucson, Arizona and produces flexible solar cells, based on our proprietary CIGS thin film processes, innovative interconnect technology and module structures. Our CIGS thin-film solar modules are based on a razor-thin conductive layer of copper, indium, gallium, and selenium. The property in which the module most obviously under-performed was a low VOC, which is characteristic of high defect density and high recombination velocities. It is manufactured by depositing a thin layer of copper, indium, gallium and selenium on glass or plastic backing, along with electrodes on the front and back to collect current. The cigs solar panel available here are made of monocrystalline silicon, polycrystalline silicon cells and photovoltaic cells for optimal functioning and consistent durability. It is a tetrahedrally bonded semiconductor, with the chalcopyrite crystal structure. The CIGS solar cells were fabricated using the three stage co-evaporation process . Researchers engaged in the Capitano project are combining thin-film NREL developed another process that involves three deposition steps and produced the current CIGS efficiency record holder at 20.3%. An inert material provides the counter electrode, and the reference electrode measures and controls the potential. Two methodologies exist: deposition of elemental layered structures and simultaneous deposition of all elements (including Se). CIGS is flexible, akin to other thin film photovoltaic technologies. The scope of this Guide is specific to Alberta [2] CIGS cells continue being developed, as they promise to reach silicon-like efficiencies, while maintaining their low costs, as is typical for thin-film technology. This problem is commonly alleviated by adding countering ions into solution for each ion to be deposited (Cu2+, Se4+, In3+, and Ga3+), thus changing that ion's reduction potential. The use of gallium increases the optical band gap of the CIGS layer as compared to pure CIS, thus increasing the open-circuit voltage. In this process, two different precursor films are deposited separately on a substrate and a superstrate. Finally, In and Ga are again evaporated in the presence of Se. MiaSolé solar cells produce the world’s most lightweight UL certified solar module package. Quality Made in Germany. Co-evaporation of CIGS absorber layers 2.1. They are manufactured through a longer process as compared to the … The day will end in the early afternoon to enable everyone to get home on Tuesday. Research is attempting to switch from dual-source precursors to single-source precursors. The CIGS materials system continues to set new performance records. EPV films have a low defect concentration. The best efficiency achieved as of September 2014 was 21.7%. Also, high growth temperatures raise the thermal budget and costs. This manufacturing giant is partially responsible for the strong forecasted growth for CIGS PV installations worldwide. CIGS Technology. The sulfurization step appears to passivate the surface in a way similar to CdS in most other cells. Further, the Cu-Se system has a complicated behavior and the film's composition depends on the Se4+/Cu2+ ion flux ratio which can vary over the film surface. This is followed by Cu and Se deposited at a higher temperature to allow for diffusion and intermixing of the elements. OwensDesignInc ... Silicon Solar 24,646 views. The most common device structure for CIGS solar cells is shown in the diagram (see Figure 1: Structure of a CIGS device). Evaporation + selenization 2.3. Na is also credited with catalyzing oxygen absorption. Framed CIGS thin-film solar module The global solar photovoltaics (PV) industry has entered a new phase. However, Heliovolt claimed a top cell efficiency of 12.2%. Michael Powalla (ZSW) and Rutger Schlatmann (HZB) write in pv magazine about CIGS, discussing the versatile applications, cost efficiency and environmental impact of the thin-film technology. [30] Cu deficiency increases the majority carrier (hole) concentration by increasing the number of (electron-accepting) Cu vacancies. Place and date have now been set for the international CIGS workshop IW-CIGSTech 11! CIGS thin-film modules have attracted more and more attention in the solar industry. reductions of CIGS PV modules. Typical film characteristics are not known outside of the company, as no research has been conducted by independently funded laboratories. First, they are polycrystalline α-phase which has the chalcopyrite crystal structure shown in Figure 3. Copper Indium Gallium Di-Selenide (CIGS) PV Solar Cells is the last type of solar cells in the second generation. The workshop will be co-hosted by HZB and ZSW. Assuming that 100% of all CIGS PV modules produced can be collected via the variety of collection processes outlined above, a grand total of 209 MW of CIGS PV cells can be collected. You would like to be added to the event mailing list? However, all the modules that beat ISET's module were coevaporated, a process which has manufacturing disadvantages and higher costs. Therefore, CVD has a lower thermal budget and lower costs. Films formed at lower temperatures from elemental Se were Se deficient, but had multiple phases including metal selenides and various alloys. They opened another production facility and continued to improve efficiency and yield. Fabrication of all CIGS solar cell layers 2. Copper Indium Gallium Di-Selenide (CIGS) PV Solar Cells is the last type of solar cells in the second generation. From pv magazine Germany The efficiency of thin-film solar cells based on copper, indium, gallium and selenium (CIGS) semiconductors has improved to more than 23% in … Also unlike crystalline silicon, these substrates can be flexible.[25]. Würth Solar began producing CIGS cells using an inline coevaporation system in 2005 with module efficiencies between 11% and 12%. Solar Frontier has achieved a conversion efficiency of 23.35% on a 1cm² CIS solar PV cell, the highest verified figure for a cell of this type. This is the attractive program at ZSW Stuttgart: To register directly, please use this registration page. Copper gallium indium selenide (CIGS) solar panels. The correction was originally done via high temperature physical vapor deposition, which is not practical in industry. When Se is supplied in the gas phase (for example as H2Se or elemental Se) at high temperatures, the Se becomes incorporated into the film by absorption and subsequent diffusion. Chemical vapor deposition (CVD) has been implemented in multiple ways for the deposition of CIGS. o Solar Frontier: GW-scale o Stion, TMSC Solar, and Avancis: 100-200MW/year • Improved stability and degradation. These semiconductors are especially attractive for solar applications because of their high optical absorption coefficients and versatile optical and electrical characteristics, which can in principle be manipulated and tuned for a specific need in a given device.[15]. IDTechEx's new report 'Electronics Reshaped 2020-2040' reveals a booming solar PV market in the $100 billion, 100GW territory. Following dehydration, the remaining porous film is sintered and selenized at temperatures greater than 400 °C.[30][32][36]. [27] In CIGS the efficiency tradeoff is less severe than in silicon. The CIGS White Paper 2019 is available for download. For more details, see news articles by Manz AG and pv magazine. A copper indium gallium selenide solar cell (or CIGS cell, sometimes CI(G)S or CIS cell) is a thin-film solar cell used to convert sunlight into electric power. Na is commonly supplied by the soda-lime glass substrate, but in processes that do not use this substrate the Na must be deliberately added. CIS/CIGS oder auch CIGS Se bezeichnen Materialzusammensetzungen von Dünnschicht-Solarmodulen, die aus Leitern und Halbleitern bestehen. The absorber (the CIGS layer) in a solar cell is where the action is. In this method a metal film of Cu, In and Ga is sputtered at or near room temperature and reacted in a Se atmosphere at high temperature. [1], Thin-film market share is stagnated at around 15 percent, leaving the rest of the PV market to conventional solar cells made of crystalline silicon. Progress in Photovoltaics: Research and Applications 25.7 (2017): 668-676. IW-CIGSTech 9, the 9th International Workshop for CIGS Thin-Film Solar Cell Technology, jointly organized by HZB and ZSW, is now open for registration. Laser interconnected cells, which are produced on industry leading substrate widths in multi-kilometer long rolls will change solar manufacturing in the future. Use of H2Se provides the best compositional uniformity and the largest grain sizes. The point contacts on the Al2O3 layer are created by e-beam lithography and the line contacts on the SiO2 layer are created using photolithography. [6], CIGS has an exceptionally high absorption coefficient of more than 105/cm for 1.5 eV and higher energy photons. It has a cell aperture efficiency of over 17% and the MIPV leisure series of panels deliver a power output of up to 360W.

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